Standards to the Protection against Heat and Flame
The textile surface is exposed to a defined flame for 10 seconds, to evaluate the propagation, the afterglow and the final state of the material after the procedure.
The test procedure is used to evaluate the material changes, after the exposure to the radiation.
Materials are ranked by calculating a heat transfer index, which is an indication of the relative protection under specified test conditions.
The TPP-test simulates typical fire conditions through the combination of convective heat and radiant heat. Therefore, a specimen is exposed to typical fire conditions: The heat source consists of 50 % convective heat and 50 % radiant heat. The heat flow adds up to 84 kW/m² (approximately 2 cal/cm²/sec.). The test determines the time and applied heat energy per unit area (TPP) on the back of the textile that would result in second degree burns on the skin.
The sweating guarded hotplate, often referred to as a ”skin model”, is designed to produce accurate, repeatable measurements of the thermal resistance and water vapor resistance (or permeability) of textiles under steady-state conditions. These measurements can be conducted separately or simultaneously whereupon different environmental conditions in form of specific combinations of temperature, relative air humidity, air velocity, and aggregate state (aerially or liquid) can be used.